纬度与深度:AECOM的亚洲历程


AECOM执行副总裁 雅辛塔•麦卡恩


作为全球知名的综合设计品牌,AECOM统括多专业领域、关注环境的可持续发展。对于这样的跨国设计机构,领导者的专业经验和视野远见颇为重要。雅辛塔•麦卡恩女士的职业生涯起源于1981年的澳大利亚,领导着AECOM的景观设计和总体规划等数个部门。她的设计足迹跨越多个国度, 致力于用设计解决方案营造更好的社会、环境和经济效益,为不同国家、地区打造超越纬度地域的公共空间。作为设计者,城市化的进程中不断发展的同时,也在各种开发实践中不断回顾和总结,深入结合多学科理论实践知识,不断完善、引导更智慧化的城市开发和规划方向。谈及AECOM在亚洲的20年的实践之路,麦卡恩女士以深入浅出的叙述方式,将设计者对于城市发展和行业趋势的见解一一呈现。

INL: Hello, it’s our honor to have this opportunity to talk to you and interview you.We just listened to your lecture, very interesting.We know that AECOM has worked in China and Asia for a long time, and so I think AECOM has witnessed the development of China’s urbanization which you must have some ideas to share with us.

国际新景观:很高兴您能在如此繁忙中接受《国际新景观》杂志的专访,这会为业界提供更多了解AECOM和您的机会。您的演讲非常精彩,众所周知,AECOM在亚洲地区有着20年的实践经验,同时也见证了中国城市化的重要进程,您一定有许多想法与我们分享吧。

Ms. McCann: I like this question because we have evolved from the beginning, and it’s a great organization. In fact the first project we did, Jinji Lake, was a wonderful industrial park. In the book I wrote something, and we used to talk about the sleeping giant, the way of urbanization that is coming. I think it’s a very good time to reflect back lots of things in 20 years. If you look out of the window now, you see incredible urbanization. Looking at Jinji Lake—the planning, balance between the buildings and the public space, I still think it was a successful combination. Have you seen Jinji Lake? I think you have to go there one day.

麦卡恩女士:这是个不错的问题,AECOM在这些年的历程中也在不断演变,趋向于更优质的空间营造。金鸡湖是我们在亚洲的第一个项目,它是一座滨水工业园。在作品集的文章中,我提及了城市化进程的方式:沉睡的巨人。事实上,现在是一个很好的时机去回顾和总结过去20年的发展。随时眺望窗外,你会发现整个城市化的进程难以置信。在金鸡湖项目中,我们致力于规划、建筑以及公共空间的相互平衡,我现在依然认为在这个项目中这些方面都得到了成功融合。如果你还没去过金鸡湖,未来某一天一定要去看一看。

Ms. McCann: Talking about this statement of transformation,I remembered going there we worked on the plan, we developed the first stage which was good. It was very remarkable to see people discovering a new way to live because they have this new environment and it has never existed before. I remembered getting up early one morning and walking along the new promenade, and it was so moving to see all ages of people coming out, the old men in the early morning doing their exercises, later the day, families,mothers and babies. It just seemed like the building block of that new city was being built the right way; we recreating the places there people live well. If you reflect back what has happened in the past 20 years, it’s rather a good example, and other places have not been so well. I think it’s a very important time now in China to look back all the learning that people have done and made,and learn from what has happened. We now become more thoughtful about the bigissues that impacting the environment now, the poor water quality, the lack ofvegetation, etc. You think how much areas have been converted out of their original uses and unnatural changes. It’s time to come back in and think about the creation of parks and public spaces which advocate so deep a meaning;it’s going to fulfill all the things I talked about, addressing human health and addressing environment issues.We have to bring back the quality, living ecology and biology.We need more sciences applied to these parts.So that’s what I think about the last 20 years.

麦卡恩女士:在金鸡湖这个项目中,我们做了项目的首期设计。对于设计者而言,看到人们找寻到了一种新的生活方式来享受空间是非常有成就感的,这处新的环境是由我们创造的、以往不曾存在的。我记得清晨在滨水大道散步的时候,看到许多不同年龄的人,从老人到孩童都在用自己的方式享受空间,让我非常感动。看起来我们打造空间的方式是正确的,营造了一处新的宜居空间。回望过去20年的发展,金鸡湖项目是非常具有借鉴意义的,许多空间还没有发展到这个程度。因此我认为目前是回顾和总结过去的重要时机。我们也越来越关注许多切实影响着我们生存环境的问题。许多地区的原始功能、自然变化和环境质量都被人类改变,是时候思索公共空间的营造,这具有深远的意义,也将解决许多我前面谈到的问题:关注人类健康、解决环境问题。我们应该重塑宜居的高质量空间,重建符合生态和生物科学的生活方式,这些都需要我们应用更多的科学来实现,这就是我对过去20年的一些感悟。


INL: It’s very meaningful.You just showed some profound works by AECOM, and some are large scale and some are complicated. We noticed that AECOM would pay attention to many aspects in one project.How does AECOM achieve that?

国际新景观:我们留意到AECOM的许多项目都具有深远的意义,从大尺度城市开发到复杂的空间设计,AECOM在设计中兼顾了诸多方面,我们的问题就是:AECOM是如何做到将不同的因素很好地融合在项目之中的?

Ms. McCann:We have a lot of very smart people who dedicate themselves to these projects. Complicated projects take really sophisticated teams and people who committed themselves to the project over along period. These projects are very challenging and very difficult.Everything should be appropriate in place, working through the politics,finding the right budgets, etc. Every step is very complicated.You know AECOM have the vision about what we want to do in the world, and the vision is to bethe premier and best provider of urban infrastructure.So it’s a very big idea,and big projects mean big teams that they need a whole range of experts able to solve the complicated issues. They come from planners, designers and engineers.This is very important to bring the office successful.

麦卡恩女士:我们有许多优秀的人才致力于这些项目的营造。复杂的项目需要经验丰富的团队来实现,需要设计师们长期的奉献。这些项目非常具有挑战性,也很难实施。每一个环节、每一个部分都需要恰当的开发,还应遵守政策和预算。每一步都非常复杂,但是AECOM对于想要完成的事情都有着完善的远景和规划,我们的规划对于城市基础设施来说一定是最优的。我们的想法很大,优秀的项目需要智慧的团队,需要各个专业的人才来共同解决这些复杂的问题。AECOM的团队有规划师、设计师和工程师,这是我们取得成功的重要因素。


INL: Then our next question, AECOM is a Fortune 500 company, a global design consulting firm with offices in many countries.How does AECOM promote the communications among different offices?

国际新景观:AECOM作为世界五百强的跨国设计咨询集团,在众多国家地区都有办公室,我们很想知道AECOM是如何促进多办公室之间的交流的?

Ms. McCann: It’s a very good question. We have a few ways to do it; actually I think we do a pretty good job. First of all our work being global and local at the same time, so we try very hard to keep that balance.You would never do real good work if you are not local, and you would never be fully inspired if you don’t know about what’s going on in the world.We talk about our work a lot with each other and we have internal communication systems.We have technical practice circles where people could talk to each other. In the role like mine, I try to make sure that knowledge we have is being shared among the globe. I encourage the practice leaders to talk about and write about their work. We use the intranet inside the company for sharing knowledge, and we also try to bring people together to meet occasionally and we have programs. Here in Asia for many years, we had a program called boot camp.Actually we bring people together around real challenges in cities with crises and different client groups. That’s also the way for people to meet each other who haven’t worked together before and to inspire each other. We also have the internal awards for projects. That’s also a bright way for people to catch up what’s going on.

麦卡恩女士:这个问题很有代表性。对于内部交流,我们有几种方式,目前来看我们做的很好。我们的工作需要兼顾全球性和本土性,因此我们非常努力保持这两者之间的平衡。如果你不够了解本土,你一定无法很好地完成设计;如果你不够了解国际趋势,那你也无法获得好的灵感。在AECOM,我们有丰富的交流,还有内部的沟通系统,并通过技术实践交流系统进行讨论。我的职责一部分就是要确保我们掌握的专业知识和经验可以在全球范围的办公室之间得以分享,我们做了许多努力,我一直鼓励业务领导人畅谈和撰写一些工作心得,在公司的内部网络中分享。我们在亚洲有一个“设计战斗营”的项目,把不同办公室的成员汇集起来,用集体的智慧共同应对挑战和危机、直面业主。这种特定的方式来让不同的成员相互沟通,或许他们从未合作过,但他们却可以给对方以灵感的启发。AECOM还设有内部的项目奖项,这有助于所有成员了解我们的发展。


INL: We also noticed that you play an influential role in several organizations and institutes.So our question is what do you think of the contribution of professional associations to the industry’s development?

国际新景观:我们留意到您是诸多行业权威组织的领军人物,请问您是如何看待专业协会对于整个行业发展的作用的?

Ms. McCann: I think every profession has this responsibility to give back to the communities that we live in, and that’s just a part of being professional, and a part of community. I have been involved in two non-profits for some years now.One is an organization in San Francisco. I think I get more out of the ideas I tried to give my time and hold back on different issues. It also gives me a border perspective on the world and I can bring what we do inside AECOM and bring the knowledge to the group, but I also share what l learnt from the group. I think it’s a very important thing to do to keep you in touch with community and common issues in different ways.

麦卡恩女士:我认为每一位从业者都有义务去回馈我们所生活的社区,社区内的每一位成员都应如此。近年来我在两个非盈利专业组织中担任职务,其中一个组织来自于旧金山。在我花费时间完成不同事务的同时,也获益良多。在我努力完成每一项任务的过程中,也对世界有了更广阔的视野。我可以把我在AECOM所做的事情和我的专业知识带给协会团体,也可以将我在团体协会中的知识分享到AECOM。在我看来,用各种方式来拉近我们与专业团体和普遍问题的距离是非常重要的。


INL: Yes, in your lecture you talked about the changing role of landscape architects in the industry, and landscape architecture is becoming more crucial in our daily life, so what do you think about this change?

国际新景观:随着城市化进程的加快,景观设计师的角色也在逐步转变,在城市发展中发挥着越来越重要的作用,而景观也与人们的日常生活息息相关,请问您是如何看待这一发展方向的?

Ms. McCann: I think landscape architects make a difference at the community level that architects and engineers don’t make.Landscape architects are trained to understand physical systems, and they’re also trained to understand the social and cultural characteristics of the community and city.So I think there’s an overall common state of our landscape architects is about creating human-centered experience for people, and so professionals have a hugely important plan and very strong future.I think we need more landscape architects. I don’t know how many landscape architects are there in China, but in America there are 22 000 landscape architects and 120000 architects. It is an important profession but we need more landscape architects. There is tremendous need for experts who could think prospectively about streets, parks and spaces. Their role is to create a better society.

麦卡恩女士:景观设计师与建筑师和工程师不同,更要兼顾更大的范围。他们接受的培训让他们在掌握系统理论的同时,还要懂得城市社区和文化特色,因此我认为景观设计师普遍需要具备一种全局观,这对于营造以人为本的空间体验非常重要。因此,景观设计师们的未来重要而伟大。我们需要更多的景观设计师。我不清楚目前中国的从业者有多少,但在美国有2.2万名景观设计师和12万名建筑师。景观设计是一个非常重要的行业,我们迫切需要的是能够很好地理解街道、公园和空间的专业人员。他们有助于营造一个更好的社会。


INL: You have also been involved in different projects in many countries.Compared with other countries, what do you think the profession in China?

国际新景观:您曾在许多不同的国家和地区做过景观规划和设计的项目,有着丰富的国际项目经验,与其他国家相比,您对于中国的景观行业有怎样的看法?

Ms. McCann: I think China is incredibly impressive in the speed with which landscape architects have come into play here. The number of landscape architects now is significantly more than that inseveral years ago.So it’s very impressive. We have a lot of very smart people,landscape architects who are talented and receiving very good training.I think one of the challenges with the speed with which everything is done is just having enough people with enough experiences to be able to make sure projects with consistent quality. I know young people have been given lots of responsibility. But there are a lot of challenges in projects here. So when those things we are working very hard on and getting a senior level of view and work, young people could learn about the approach to a very comprehensive project. I think what’s going on in China is remarkable in landscape industry.

麦卡恩女士:在中国,景观设计师需要面对非常惊人的发展速度。在这几年中,景观设计师的从业人数增长许多。我们有许多优秀的人才,他们接受了非常良好的教育培养。要应对快速的即成的发展进程,我们需要更多具有丰富经验的从业者,以确保项目的高水准和可持续性。如今的年轻设计师被赋予了更多的责任,然而项目带来的挑战也在不断地冲击着他们。当我们不断努力的同时,我们对于事情和工作的把控也会更为成熟。年轻的设计师也会从项目的实践中获益,学会如何应对复杂的项目挑战。因此我认为目前中国景观行业的发展是非常引人注目的。


INL: Talking about the profession, do you have any advice to young landscape architects in China?

国际新景观:谈及景观行业的发展,您有什么想要和年轻的景观设计师们分享的吗?

Ms. McCann: Work up. It’s a very exciting time to be a professional. They should ask questions, and not be satisfied with aneasy way out, even they have to do things fast.They should take time to ask questions and make sure that they learn from other more experienced people.They need to find mentors to help them. That’s very important. I was very fortunate that I had mentors helped me.

麦卡恩女士:努力进步!对于设计师来说,这是一个黄金时代。不吝提问,不要轻易对自己满足。虽然设计师经常需要在有限的时间里完成设计,但我建议大家能够时常停下脚步来思索和发问,多向资深人士学习。如果可以的话,为你自己寻找良师益友,这是非常有益的,我很庆幸在我的设计生涯中能有引导者的帮助。

 

关于AECOM

AECOM是提供专业技术和管理服务的全球咨询集团,业务涵盖交通运输、基础设施、环境、能源、水务和政府服务等领域,通过全球约45,000名员工的共同努力,已成为各专业领域的业界翘楚。AECOM统括全球视野、本土认知、技术创新与专业知识,持之以恒地构筑、改善并维护世界各地的建筑设施、自然环境和社会环境的可持续发展。作为《财富》500强公司之一,AECOM的业务遍及全球150多个国家。


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